Thursday, August 6, 2015

Private Pilot Study Guide

Below is a great little guide that will take you through the required regulatory knowledge required to earn your FAA Private Pilot License. Enjoy!

Inspections – 91.409, 91.411, 91.413, 91.207
            A         AD’s (airworthiness directives)
            V         VOR Check (IFR- 30 days)
             I          Inspections (100 hr & annual)
            A         Altimeter (IFR- 24 mo)
            T          Transponder (24 mo)
            E          ELT (12 mo, 1 hr use or ½ bat. life)
            S          Static & Pitot System (24 mo)

VFR Night
            F          Fuses (3 each type, 1 full set)
            L          Landing Light (for hire)
            A         Anti-Collision Light(s)
            P          Position Lights
            S          Source of Electrical Power

Types of Airpspeed                                                               Types of Altitude
            I           Indicated (Read off instrument)                                 I           Indicated (Read off instrument)
            C         Calibrated (IAS corrected Position)                           P          Pressure (Alt. above 29.92 plane)
            E          Equivalent (CAS corrected Compressibility)          D         Density (PA corrected non-std temp)
            T          True (EAS corrected non-std pressure & temp)       A         Absolute (AGL)
                                                                                                                  T          True (MSL)

Airspace – AIM Chapter 3
A         18,000 MSL – FL600, Requires IFR, Clearance, Mode C Transponder, Two Way Radios
            No VFR, Speed – up to Mach 1
B         SFC – 10,000 MSL, Requires Clearance, Mode C Transponder, Two Way Radios (VOR if IFR)
            VFR – 3 sm Clear of Clouds, Speed – 250 KIAS in B, 200 KIAS Below B
C         SFC – 4,000 AGL, Requires Positive Communication, Mode C Transponder, Two Way Radios
            VFR – 3 sm 1000’ above, 500’ below, 2000’ hz, Speed – 250 KIAS, 200 KIAS sfc area to 2500’
D         SFC – 2,500 AGL, Requires Positive Communication, Two Way Radios
            VFR – 3 sm 1000’ above, 500’ below, 2000’ hz, Speed – 200 KIAS
E            S          Surface
              E          Extension (surface extension to B, C, D)
              T          Transition (700’ or 1200’AGL)
               A         Airways (1200’AGL to 17,999 MSL)
               D         Domestic En Route (as needed)
O         Offshore (12 mi. from Coast to 17,999 MSL)
G         General (above G & above FL600)
            E          VFR <10,000 MSL - 3 sm 1000’ above, 500’ below
                        VFR >10,000 MSL – 5 sm 1000’ above, 1000’ below, 1 sm hz.
            G         Uncontrolled Airspace (not A, B, C, D, E)

Other Airspace – AIM Ch. 3 Sec. 5 (TV)3 NAPG                        Special Use – AIM Ch. 3 Sec. 4
            T          Temp. Flight Restriction                                              M         MOA (military operations area)
            T          TRSA (terminal radar service area)                             C         Controlled Firing (not charted)
            T          Training Routes (military VR, IR, xxx, xxxx)          W        Warning Area (offshore)
            V         VFR Flyways (VFR routes under B)                            R         Restricted Area (need permission)
            V         VFR Transition (VFR routes through B)                    A         Alert Area (high vol. training area)
            V         VFR Corridor (hole through B)                                    P          Prohibited (can’t go – secret service)
            N         National Security Area
            A         ADIZ (air defense ident. zone – DVFR, IFR)          
            P          Parachute Area
            G         Glider Area    
Notes: ADIZ  requires: 2 way radios, Mode C transponder, and a DVFR or IFR  flight plan to go into,            
                        within, or across the ADIZ.
                        Military Training Routes with a 3 digit number are > 1500’ AGL, routes with a 4 digit number
                                    have at least one segment below 1500’ AGL.
                        Special VFR – only effective in the surface areas of B, C, D, E. Requires 1 SM COC. Pilot is
                                    responsible for obstacle clearance. At night, the pilot & aircraft must be IFR rated.

Supplemental Oxygen Requirements – 91.211      
            12,500 – 14,000          > 30 min. required flight crew must use
            > 14,000                      Required flight crew must use for the entire flight
            > 15,000                      Occupants must be supplied with oxygen
            Pressurized Cabin Requirements:
>FL250                       10 Min. supply of oxygen is required for each occupant in case of depressurization and the need for an emergency descent.
>FL350                       1 pilot must use oxygen at all times or use a system that automatically supplies
                                    oxygen when pressure altitude exceeds 14,000 ft.
                                    Except: That one pilot need not use the oxygen mask below FL410 as long as there are 2 pilots at the controls and each has a quick donning type mask that can
                                    be placed from the ready position on the face with one hand within 5 seconds.

            C         Carburetor Equipped (not fuel injected- C152, C172 use updraft carb. - Bernoulli’s principle)
            H         Horizontally Opposed (pistons mounted on each side of the engine move horizontally)
            A         Air Cooled (not liquid cooled)
            N         Normally Aspirated (engine uses ambient air pressure – not turbo charged or super-charged)
            D         Direct Drive (propeller mounts directly to the hub/crankshaft – 1 engine revolution = 1 prop rev.)
            L          Lycoming (Avco Lycoming Manufacturing)

Aircraft Documents – 91.203                                               Pilot Documents
            A         Airworthiness Certificate                                            Pilot Certificate – current & appropriate
            R         Registration Certificate                                               Medical Certificate – current & appropriate
            R         Radio License – if outside US                                    Photo ID – government issued
            O         Operators Handbook                                                     Logbook w/ endorsements – solo students
            W        Weight & Balance – current

Duration of Medical Certificates – 61.23
            First Class – 6 mo. for ATP privileges, 12 mo. for Comm. Privileges, 24 mo. for Private/Rec. if over 40,
                                 36 mo. if under 40
            Second Class - 12 mo. for Comm. Privileges, 24 mo. for Private/Rec. if over 40, 36 mo. if under 40
            Third Class - 24 mo. for Private/Rec. if over 40, 36 mo. if under 40

Passenger Carrying Requirements – 61.57
            Day – 3 take-offs & 3 landings, same category, class, & type if req., within preceding 90 days
            Night – 3 take-offs & 3 landings, to a full stop, within preceding 90 days (1 hr. before/after sunset)
            Tailwheel - 3 take-offs & 3 landings, to a full stop, within preceding 90 days, in a tailwheel aircraft

Classification Airmen – 61.5                                                            Classification Aircraft – 61.65
            Category – airplane, rotorcraft, glider, etc.                                         Category – normal, utility, transport,
            Class – single, multi, land, sea                                                            Class – airplane, rotorcraft, glider,
            Type – DC-10, B-747, C-172, PA-28                                                 Type – large (12,500+), turbine, etc

Fuel Requirements – 91.151
            Day – fly to first point of intended landing and thereafter for 30 min.
            Night – fly to first point of intended landing and thereafter for 45 min.

Minimum Altitude – 91.119
            Anywhere – safe alt., should the engine fail, to not cause a hazard to persons or property on the surface
            Congested – 1000’ above the highest obstacle within 2000 horizontal distance to the aircraft
            Non-Congested – 500’ above any person or structure within 2000 horizontal distance to the aircraft

Right of Way Rules – 91.113, 91.103
            Aircraft in distress have the right of way over all other aircraft
            Aircraft towing/refueling another aircraft have the right of way over all engine driven aircraft
            Landing – aircraft at the lower alt. has right of way, but shall not take advantage of rule to cut in front
                             of another aircraft
            Head-on – both shall alter course to the right
            Converging (not head-on) – aircraft on the right has the right of way
            Overtaking – overtaking aircraft shall pass on the right, aircraft being overtaken has the right of way
            Right of Way Order – balloon, glider, airship, airplane, rotorcraft (BGAAR – “big R”)

CG Flight Characteristics – (H-8083-1)
            Forward CG – higher stall speed, slower cruise speed, more stable, longer take-off roll, similar to heavy
            Aft CG – lower stall speed, faster cruise speed, less stable, poor spin recovery, similar to lighter aircraft

Light Gun Signals – (91.125)                                                                                    Lost Procedures – 5 C’s
            Light                           On Ground                              In Flight                                  Check Compass
            Steady Green              Cleared for T/O                       Cleared to Land                      Climb
            Flashing Green            Cleared to Taxi                       Return for Landing                 Circle
            Steady Red                 Stop                                         Continue Circling                    Communicate
            Flashing Red               Taxi off Runway                     Airport Unsafe                        Confess & Comply
            Flashing White            Return to Starting Point          n/a
            Red/Green                   Use Extreme Caution              Use Extreme Caution

Transponder Requirements –                                              Engine Failure In Flight
            In A & above 10,000 msl (except < 2500’ agl),                A         Airspeed Vg
In and below B and within 30 nm of B,                          B         Best Field
            In and above C, and when crossing the ADIZ.                  C         Checklist
            7700 – Emergency                                                                  D         Declare an Emergency 121.5, 7700
            7600 – Lost Communications
            7500 – Hijacking
            1200 – VFR operations


Personal Checklist – AIM CH 8                                          Illusions In Flight
            I           Illness                                                                          I           Inversion – sudden level off
            M         Medication                                                               C         Coriolis - head movement in turn
            S          Stress                                                                           E          Elevator – up/down drafts
            A         Alcohol                                                                       F          False Horizon – clouds, terrain
            F          Fatigue                                                                        L          Landing Illusions – see below
            E          Emotion                                                                     A         Auto kinesis – stationary light moves
                                                                                                             G         Graveyard spin/spiral
                                                                                                             S          Somatographic – acceleration/decel.

Landing Illusions                                                                               Atmospheric Illusions
            R         Runway Width – wide, pilot thinks he’s low                         Rain – pilot thinks he’s high
            R         Runway Slope – up sloping, pilot thinks he’s high                 Haze – pilot thinks he’s farther away
            F          Featureless Terrain – pilot thinks he’s high                             Fog – pilot thinks he’s pitched up
            A         Atmospheric – see right
            G         Ground Lighting – bright, pilot thinks he’s low

Physical Conditions – MDH CHOSENS
            M         Motion Sickness – symptoms include nausea, dizziness, paleness, sweating, vomiting
                                                      Caused by the brain receiving conflicting signals from the eye & inner ear
            D         Drugs (91.17) – no person may act as a crewmember while using any drug that affects the
                                                  person’s faculties in any way contrary to safety
            H         Hypoxia – Lack of oxygen in the body
Hypoxic          A         Altitude/low pressure prevents oxygen from passing from the lungs
Hypemic          B         Blood - hemoglobin doesn’t carry the oxygen (carbon monoxide)
Stagnant          C         Circulatory system doesn’t carry the blood properly (cold, age, g’s)
Hystotoxic      D         Drugs/Alcohol prevent the cells from properly using oxygen
            C         Carbon Monoxide – colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is a byproduct of combustion. Can                                                                  enter the cabin with heated air.
            H         Hyperventilation – Caused by stress when the body exhales too much carbon dioxide. Symptoms
                                                       are similar to hypoxia. Slow the breathing rate by talking, singing, or breathe                                                          into a bag/shirt, etc.         
            O         Oxygen Requirements – 91.211 See VFR Acronyms
            S          Sinus Block – During ascent/decent, pressure in sinuses should equalize with cabin pressure.
                                               Pain is felt when it does not. Avoid flying with upper respiratory problems.
            E          Ear Block – During decent, one must periodically open the eustachian tube to equalize pressure
                                            between the inner and outer ear by swallowing, yawning, etc.
            N         Night Vision – Dark adaptation requires about 30 min. for the rods to adjust to low light and
                                                 can be lost immediately after contact with bright light. Red cockpit lighting
                                                 is used to aid night vision, however, it causes colors to washed out. Can cause
                                                 difficulty in reading charts. AIM recommends supplemental O2 above 5000’.
            S          Scuba Diving – Nitrogen, absorbed in the blood during scuba diving, can be released and form
                                                  bubbles in the blood (the Bends). Avoid flights over 8000’ msl within 24 hours
                                                  of any scuba diving activity. Wait at least 24 hours after scuba diving requiring
                                                  a controlled ascent when flying below 8000’ msl.. Wait at 12 hours for flights
                                                  below 8000’ msl. when no controlled ascent was required.

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